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Object Locking in Relational Database Transactions - Part 2 Jun 16, 2021 by Robert Gravelle

Pessimistic versus Optimistic Locking

Relational database systems (RDBMS) employ various locking strategies to enforce transaction ACID properties when modifying (e.g., UPDATING or DELETING) table records. On occasion, deadlock may occur when two concurrent transactions cannot make progress because each one is waiting for the other to release the lock. In Part 1 of this series, we we established what Object Locking is in Relational Databases, the different types of locks, and deadlocking. In today's follow-up, we'll be comparing the pros and cons of Pessimistic and Optimistic locking.

Object Locking in Relational Database Transactions - Part 1 Jun 8, 2021 by Robert Gravelle

Part 1: Overview, Lock Granularity, and Deadlocks

Recently, we've had a few blogs about database transactions and they enforce the the four ACID (Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) properties. In today's blog, we'll be taking a look at another mechanism employed by relational databases (RDBMS) to enforce ACID properties, namely, Object Locking. Specifically, we'll learn what it is, what role(s) it plays in RDBMS transactions, and some of the side effects locking may cause. While Database Object Locking can be a fairly technical and complicated subject, we're going to break it down into layman's terms here and keep things as simple as possible.

Using the SQL COUNT() Function with GROUP BY May 28, 2021 by Robert Gravelle

Back in August of 2020, The Many Flavors of the SQL Count() Function provided an overview of COUNT's many input parameter variations. Another way to use the COUNT() function is to combine it with the GROUP BY clause. Using the COUNT() function in conjunction with GROUP BY is useful for breaking down counts according to various groupings. In today's blog, we'll learn how to group counts by different criteria by querying the Sakila Sample Database using Navicat Premium as our database client.

Important SQL Server Functions - Miscellaneous Functions May 24, 2021 by Robert Gravelle

Part 4: Miscellaneous Functions

This last category of important SQL Server functions includes those that deal with nulls, conversion, and control flow. Far from leftovers, these functions are among some of the most useful you'll ever come across!


Anytime you select a column whose value is not mandatory, you're bound to encounter null values. That only makes sense, because null values represent absent or missing information. Trouble is, nulls can reek havoc when included in calculations as well as other operations that one might perform on column data.

Important SQL Server Functions - Date Functions May 14, 2021 by Robert Gravelle

Part 3: Date Functions

After twenty years in IT, I can confirm that dates and times can be notoriously difficult to work with. Thankfully, modern relational databases like SQL Server provide a wealth of highly useful functions for this purpose. In today's blog, we'll explore some of the most popular ones.

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